Ammine is a noun that refers to a substance in which ammonia molecules serve as ligands, forming coordination complexes with metal ions. It is derived from the word "ammonia." In ammines, ammonia (NH3) molecules replace one or more of the water (H2O) molecules that are typically present in coordination complexes. The resulting ammine complex consists of a central metal ion or atom attached to surrounding ammonia molecules.
Ammine complexes are commonly observed in inorganic chemistry, particularly in the field of coordination chemistry. These complexes exhibit distinct properties due to the presence of the electron-donating ammonia ligands, which influence the reactivity and stability of the overall complex.
The naming of ammines follows a specific convention, indicating the number and arrangement of ammonia ligands around the metal ion or atom, denoted by prefixes such as mono-, di-, tri-, etc., followed by the term "ammine." For example, tris(ammine)cobalt(III) chloride refers to a complex with three ammonia ligands coordinated to a cobalt(III) ion, accompanied by chloride ions.
Ammine complexes find various applications in chemical synthesis, catalysis, and materials science. They are often utilized as building blocks in the construction of new coordination compounds and as catalysts in numerous chemical reactions. The synthesis and study of ammines contribute to the understanding of the structure and behavior of coordination complexes, enhancing our knowledge of chemical bonding and reactivity.
The word "ammine" is derived from the chemical substance called "ammonia". Ammonia is a compound composed of nitrogen and hydrogen, represented by the chemical formula NH3. In the early 19th century, chemists began studying the complex compounds formed by the coordination of metal ions with ammonia molecules. They used the term "ammine" to refer to these coordination complexes, based on the relationship with ammonia. Over time, "ammine" became a common term in chemistry to describe complex compounds involving ammonia ligands coordinated to metal ions.