MRTA, also known as Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement), refers to a left-wing guerrilla group based in Peru. It was founded in the 1980s with the aim of establishing a socialist state in the country. The group took its name from the indigenous leader Túpac Amaru II, who led a rebellion against Spanish colonial rule in the 18th century.
The MRTA conducted an armed struggle against the Peruvian government, primarily targeting symbols of authority and engaging in acts of violence. The group's activities included kidnapping diplomats, politicians, and businessmen, as well as carrying out bombings and robberies. It gained notoriety for its seizure of the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima in 1996, where they held 72 hostages for over four months.
The Peruvian government, under President Alberto Fujimori, launched a series of counterinsurgency operations to combat the MRTA. This included a military raid on the Japanese ambassador's residence in April 1997, resulting in the rescue of all remaining hostages and the deaths of all rebels involved.
Although significantly weakened by the government's intervention, the MRTA maintained a minimal presence in the following years. Many of its leaders were imprisoned, and the group's influence gradually diminished. Today, the MRTA is considered a largely defunct organization, but its historical significance in Peru's political landscape remains notable.
Overall, MRTA can be defined as a left-wing guerrilla group that operated in Peru during the 1980s and 1990s, with the objective of establishing a socialist state through armed struggle.