Ollier's disease, also known as enchondromatosis, is a rare non-hereditary skeletal disorder characterized by the development of multiple benign cartilage tumors, known as enchondromas. It is named after the French surgeon Louis Léopold Ollier, who first described the condition in the late 19th century.
In Ollier's disease, enchondromas typically appear during childhood or adolescence and affect the long bones of the body, such as the hands, feet, and legs. These benign tumors cause abnormal growth and maturation of cartilage within the bones, leading to bone deformities, asymmetry, and limb length discrepancies. The enchondromas can also impact joint function and increase the risk of fractures.
While the exact cause of Ollier's disease is unknown, it is believed to be a result of spontaneous mutations during early fetal development. Most cases occur sporadically, although a small proportion may have a genetic component with a pattern of inheritance yet to be fully understood.
Clinical diagnosis of Ollier's disease is usually based on radiographic findings, such as the presence of multiple enchondromas and their characteristic appearance. The condition can be further confirmed through a biopsy, where microscopic examination of the tumors reveals the presence of cartilaginous tissue.
Treatment for Ollier's disease is primarily focused on managing the symptoms and complications associated with the condition. This may involve surveillance of the tumors, surgical intervention to address bone deformities or fractures, and physical therapy to improve joint mobility and muscle strength. Regular monitoring is necessary as there is a small chance for the enchondromas to undergo malignant transformation into chondrosarcomas, a malignant bone tumor.
The word "Ollier's disease" derives its name from the French physician, Louis Xavier Édouard Ollier. Ollier, who lived from 1830 to 1900, was a renowned surgeon and pathologist. He first described the condition in 1864, highlighting its distinctive features and characteristics. Ollier's disease, also known as multiple enchondromatosis, is a rare skeletal disorder characterized by the growth of multiple benign cartilage tumors within the bones. Due to his significant contribution to the understanding of this condition, it was later named after him in his honor.